Moths of North Carolina
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Papaipema Members:
19 NC Records

Papaipema astuta Bird, 1907 - Yellow Stoneroot Borer



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Taxonomy
Superfamily: Noctuoidea Family: NoctuidaeSubfamily: NoctuinaeTribe: ApameiniP3 Number: 932482.00 MONA Number: 9477.00
Comments: One of 44 species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010, 2015), 30 of which have been recorded in North Carolina
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIF, BOLDTechnical Description, Adults: Forbes (1954); Schweitzer et al. (2011)Technical Description, Immature Stages: Forbes (1954); Schweitzer et al. (2011)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: A medium-large Papaipema. The median area of forewing is straw yellow, heavily dusted with brown; the basal and outer third of the wing contrastingly fuscous. The spot ring around the reniform is usually yellow and the two spots on the inner side more angulate than in similar species. The hindwings are pale brown with a distinctive yellowish shading at the base (Forbes, 1954; Schweitzer et al., 2011).
Wingspan: 35 mm (Forbes, 1954)
Adult Structural Features: The valve of the male are illustrated but not described by Forbes (1954) and do not stand out as particularly different from those of several other species of Papaipema.
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: A larva illustrated by Schweitzer et al. (2011) is yellowish with clusters of dark brown spots on the dorsal and lateral surfaces. Since at least two other species of Papaipema also use Collinsonia as a host plant, Schweitzer et al recommend that they be reared to adulthood in order to identify the species.
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable only through rearing to adulthood.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: According to Eric Quinter, the three county records from North Carolina as of 2023 are the southernmost for this species (E. Quinter, pers comm. to SPH, 2022-08-25)
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ‚Č• 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: Univoltine, flying in September.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Our records come from Rich Cove Forests with populations of Collinsonia canadensis
Larval Host Plants: Monophagous, feeding solely on Richweed (Collinsonia canadensis; also known as Northern Horsebalm or Stoneroot) (Forbes, 1954; Schweitzer et al., 2011) - View
Observation Methods: Comes at least to some extent to blacklights but not to bait or flowers. Larvae can be searched for by looking for whitish frass ejected from a hole on the side of a stem (Wagner et al., 2011). However, both Papaipema duplicatus and cataphracta also feed on Collinsonia, so the presence of frass alone does not provide enough evidence to determine the presence of this species.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for Rich Montane Hardwood Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status: SR
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: G2G4 S1S2
State Protection: Listed as Significantly Rare by the Natural Heritage Program. That designation, however, does not confer any legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
Comments: This species is regarded as globally rare (NatureServe Explorer, 2016) even though its host plant is fairly widespread; it has also apparently disappeared from large areas of its former range (Schweitzer et al., 2011). Deer overbrowsing or invasion of mesic forests by exotic invasive plants may be reducing the area of suitable habitat (Schweitzer et al., 2011), but the exact reason for the apparent decline of this species has yet to be confirmed.

 Photo Gallery for Papaipema astuta - Yellow Stoneroot Borer

Photos: 29

Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-27
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-22
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-22
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-15
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-14
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-14
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2023-09-05
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2023-09-05
Buncombe Co.
Comment: A relatively rare dark form of this species.
Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-03
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-09-01
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2023-08-31
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka, Becky Elkin and Tony McBride on 2023-07-23
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka, Becky Elkin and Tony McBride on 2023-07-23
Buncombe Co.
Comment: A larva that was removed from a stem on Collinsonia canadensis.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka, Becky Elkin and Tony McBride on 2023-07-23
Buncombe Co.
Comment: A bore hole near the base of a Collinsonia canadensis.
Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-18
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-18
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-17
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-17
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-06
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-06
Buncombe Co.
Comment: think i'm finally getting to where I can tell these from P. cataphracta, but glad they have different flight times here!
Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-04
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-04
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-01
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-09-01
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-08-23
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-08-23
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-08-23
Buncombe Co.
Comment: Photograph confirmed as astuta by Eric Quinter.
Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-08-23
Buncombe Co.
Comment: Photograph confirmed as astuta by Eric Quinter
Recorded by: tom ward on 2021-09-01
Buncombe Co.
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