Amphibians of North Carolina
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Plethodon yonahlossee population 1
Crevice Salamander
This page provides locality information and images of a crevice-dwelling form of P. yonahlossee that occurs in or near the vicinity of Bat Cave and Chimney Rock in western North Carolina. It w.....................S2G4T1T2QSC
Desmognathus carolinensis
Carolina Mountain Dusky Salamander
Members of the genus Desmognathus are commonly known as dusky salamanders because of their overall dark brown or dusky ground color. Like many plethodontid salamanders, they have proven to be a.........This and other members of the D. ochrophaeus complex that occur in western North Carolina are associated with montane hardwoods with cool, clear-flowing headwater streams and seepages (Petranka...Individuals are easy to collect by searching beneath cover objects along stream margins or in the adjoining woods. They are most easily observed at night when they actively forage and seek mates on th...Local populations are centered around seepages, wet rockfaces, and headwater streams and often consist of thousands of individuals. Connectivity between local and regional populations may be hampered ...Desmognathus carolinensis is often one of the most common species in the Appalachian Mountains in mesic cove forests and on rich slopes. Many lower-elevation populations have been lost due to t...S3S4G4
Desmognathus auriculatus
Southern Dusky Salamander
Herpetologists have traditionally treated populations of a medium-sized Desmognathus that occurs on the Coastal Plain from southeastern Virginia to eastern Texas as the Southern Dusky Salamande.........The Southern Dusky Salamander occurs in forested floodplains in the Coastal Plain as well as ravine heads in the Florida Panhandle. Throughout most of the range the juveniles and adults reside under l...Specimens can be collected by searching leaf litter, woody debris, or sphagnum mats and other cover immediately next to the water's edge. ......Desmognathus auriculatus (sensu lato) appears to have undergone major declines during the last few decades (reviewed by Means 2015). For example, Means and Travis (2007) searched 63 ravines in ...S5G4
Desmognathus aeneus
Seepage Salamander
Members of the genus Desmognathus are commonly known as dusky salamanders because of their overall dark brown or dusky ground color. Like many plethodontid salamanders, they have proven to be a.........Seepage salamanders are most frequently encountered in mesic hardwood forests in and around seeps, small streams, or moss-covered rock faces. The juveniles and adults are most commonly found in moist ...Individuals are most easily collected by searching through leaf litter or beneath moss mats near seepages and streams. In the southern Appalachians, individuals can occasionally be found foraging on t...Local populations are strongly affiliated with seepages and small headwater streams and are patchily distributed across the landscape where suitable habitats for nesting and foraging are present. We h...The status of populations in North Carolina are poorly known due to the lack of long-term monitoring of populations. Populations in national forests presumably receive more protection than those on pr...S3G3G4W2
Ambystoma maculatum
Spotted Salamander
The genus Ambystoma consists of 32 currently recognized species that are found in North America and Mexico. The terrestrial adults have stout bodies and legs, widely spaced eyes, and well-devel.........Adults are most common in bottomland forests in or adjoining floodplains, but occur sporadically in upland forests and in mountainous regions where suitable breeding sites are available. Felix et al. ...The adults migrate to breeding ponds during the late winter and early spring and can be found crossing roads on rainy nights or gathering around the margins of ponds. Groups of courting adults can be ...At sites where forest buffers that surround the breeding ponds are intact, local populations are thought to be limited by density-dependent interactions that occur during the larval stage. Crowding g......S5G5
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Ambystoma tigrinum
Eastern Tiger Salamander
The genus Ambystoma consists of 32 currently recognized species that are found in North America and Mexico. The terrestrial adults have stout bodies and legs, widely spaced eyes, and well-devel.........The Eastern Tiger Salamander occurs locally at sites with sandy or otherwise friable soils and fish-free breeding sites. The adults typically breed in seasonal and semipermanent ponds, but will also u...The adults can be found beneath cover objects in and around breeding pools during the breeding season. Larvae have a variety of foraging strategies that include floating in the water column at night, ...Factors that regulate the sizes of adult populations are poorly documented. Morin (1983) found that the Eastern Newt is an important predator on the eggs. Egg predation is so severe in some ponds in N...Populations that have been documented in North Carolina are largely restricted to Carolina Bays and depressional wetlands in Longleaf Pine communities. Most are geographically isolated, with little or...S2G5T
Ambystoma mabeei
Mabee's Salamander
The genus Ambystoma consists of 32 currently recognized species that are found in North America and Mexico. The terrestrial adults have stout bodies and legs, widely spaced eyes, and well-devel.........The adults breed in fish-free habitats and live in the surrounding forests. Local populations are commonly associated with Carolina Bays and Longleaf Pine woodlands and Pond Cypress savannas with emb...Adults are active on the ground surface during the breeding season and can be found beneath surface objects in sandy pinewoods or near cypress-tupelo stands near breeding ponds. The larvae can be col...Like most Ambystoma species, local populations of Mabee's Salamander tend to be organized as metapopulations. A metapopulation is a regional group of local populations that are connected by the...This species has experienced significant long-term declines in North Carolina associated with deforestation, urbanization, agricultural and silvicultural activities, and the filling and draining of se...S2G4T
Ambystoma talpoideum
Mole Salamander
The genus Ambystoma consists of 32 currently recognized species that are found in North America and Mexico. The terrestrial adults have stout bodies and legs, widely spaced eyes, and well-devel.........Mole Salamanders require forested habits and are generally restricted to using fish-free breeding sites. Adults breed in a wide variety of both temporary, semi-permanent, and permanent habitats, inclu...The adults are most commonly found when they undergo seasonal migrations to the breeding ponds during late autumn through late winter. They can be found beneath logs or other cover objects around the...Regional populations of the Mole Salamander show evidence of metapopulation structure where clusters of local pond populations are connected by the occasional movement of individuals between populatio...The Mole Salamander largely consists of scattered, isolated populations in North Carolina that may reflect relicts from a previous range expansion and subsequent contraction. Small, isolated populatio...S2S3G5SC
Lithobates virgatipes
Carpenter Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The males produce several types of vocalizations that include the advertisement call, single-note and multi-note aggressive calls, a growl that is given when fighting, and a release call. The most fam...This is a mostly aquatic species that lives in or around the margins of coastal wetlands. The adults and juveniles are often found in acidic, brown water or blackwater wetlands such as pocosins, sphag...Carpenter Frogs are difficult to find by direct searches and are most easily documented by listening for the distinctive advertisement calls during the spring and summer months. Calling mostly occurs ...Information on local population sizes and population organization are largely lacking. The extent to which the young metamorphs or adults move between sites is poorly documented, but the movement of a...The status of populations in North Carolina has been difficult to determine due to issues with accurately monitoring populations. Resurveys of known historical populations in Maryland, New Jersey, Vi...S4G4
Lithobates sylvaticus
Wood Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The advertisement call can be a simple, deep 'cluck' or a more drawn out and raspy sounding ‘craw-awauk' or 'craw-aw-auk.' These are usually issued individually with a pause of 3-6 seconds or so befor...The Wood Frog uses a variety of habitats across its range, including Alaskan tundra, subalpine woodlands, willow and alder thickets, wet meadows, bogs, and temperate forests (AmphibiaWeb 2022, Dodd 20...The juveniles and adults are secretive and are rarely encountered outside of the breeding season. The adults are most easily observed when calling and mating at the breeding sites during late winter. ...The sizes of local breeding populations often fluctuate markedly across years, which reflects fluctuations in juvenile recruitment from year to year. It is not uncommon for local pond populations to c...Populations have likely declined historically in North Carolina due to the widespread loss of seasonal wetlands such as vernal ponds, floodplain pools, fens, and marshes. These were at one time common...S5S5
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Lithobates sphenocephalus
Southern Leopard Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The advertisement call is distinctive, but rather complex and difficult to describe. It generally consists of one or more rapid sequences of 2-6 guttural notes or clucks ('ah-ah-ah-ah' or 'aka-aka-aka...The juveniles and adults are typically found in mesic settings, and often in landscapes that have clusters of wetlands of various hydroperiods that are embedded within forests (Dodd 2013). They can us...Individuals can be found calling at the breeding sites and moving across roads on rainy nights. Searching areas in or near the shorelines of ponds or other wetlands can be productive. ...Very limited information is available on population structure and population interconnectivity across the landscape. The adults are known to move long distances from the breeding sites and often quick...The southern Leopard Frog tolerates landscape disturbances relatively well and its use of artificial aquatic habitats has allowed it to adapted to human-altered landscapes. Although this species has b...S5S5
Lithobates palustris
Pickerel Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The males produce several types of vocalizations, including an advertisement call and two additional calls associated with aggressive interactions with other males (Given 2005). The advertisement call...The Pickerel Frog is generally associated with forested landscapes with appropriate breeding sites, but can also be found in areas with a mosaic of forested and non-forested patches such as meadows or...The juveniles and adults are sometimes encountered while crossing roads on rainy nights, while the calling males can be heard during the spring warm-up and early summer. Individuals are occasionally f...We know very little about local population sizes or population structure for this species. The Pickerel Frog tends to be spottily distributed in many areas of its range. It is often underrepresented i...This species appears to be relatively common in North Carolina compared to many areas of the range. There is no evidence of significant population declines in recent years. ...S5S5
Lithobates kauffeldi
Mid-Atlantic Coast Leopard Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The call is a single-noted, unpulsed ‘chuck’ that is distinct from the pulsed ‘ak-ak-ak’ of L. sphenocephalus. The ‘chuck’ call is typically emitted in evenly spaced, repeated series that can i...Lithobates kauffeldi is mostly restricted to large coastal and riparian wetlands. Feinberg et al. (2014) described this species as inhabits mesic lowland habitats that primarily include coastal...Observations are best made by searching for calling males during warm, rainy periods in February and March....We know very little about the population dynamics or ecology of this species. The adults are terrestrial, but the extent to which the juveniles and adults migrate to the surrounding uplands is undocum...Schlesinger et al. (2018) considered populations to be secure in the core of the range (New Jersey; Delaware; Virginia) where there appear to be many apparently large populations in protected wetlands...S3G3G4W3
Lithobates heckscheri
River Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The advertisement call has been described as being a loud, distinctive snore or deep growl that last a second or two. It is often repeated several times in sequence with a brief gap in time between gr...The River Frog is a semiaquatic species that is associated with Coastal Plain streams and rivers and standing water habitats. It can be found along the margins of sluggish sections of rivers and strea...The adults can be found by searching the margins of wetlands and looking for individuals that are near shorelines. Searching for the conspicuous schooling tadpoles may be the best way to document loca...Very little is known about the sizes of local populations or genetic population structure. Given that this species may breed in rivers and creeks and connected wetlands, it is possible that the speci...The River Frog appears to still be common in Florida and Georgia (Krysko et al., 2019, Jensen et al. 2008), but has declined near the periphery of the range. The last museum-vouchered specimen for Mis...SXG5E
Lithobates clamitans
Green Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The males produce several types of calls, with the advertisement call the most well recognized one. It may consists of a single note that resembles a deep "c'tung" or a rapid sequence that has 2-7 not...Lithobates clamitans is a semiaquatic species that generally stays close to bodies of water that are used for foraging, breeding, and overwintering. The juveniles and adults use all sorts of aq...Green frogs are most easily observed by walking the margins of wetlands or searching roads on rainy nights. Their distinctive advertisement call is readily heard around breeding sites during the summe...Green Frog populations are probably not organized as metapopulations either locally or regionally given their ability to disperse long distances and their lack of strong habitat fidelity (Smith and Gr...This is one of the most common frogs in North Carolina and it tolerates habitat disturbance and alteration better than most species. Populations often occur on timbered landscapes so long as breeding ...S5G5
sciNametaxonomic commentsfield marksvocalizationshabitatobservation methodspopulation ecologystatus commentsS rankG rankstate statusus status
Lithobates catesbeianus
American Bullfrog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The juveniles and adults produce a variety of vocalizations, the most familiar being the advertisement call that consists of deep groans that are commonly repeated in sequences of 3-5 or more. These h...The American Bullfrog is a semiaquatic species that spends much of its time during the warmer months of the year in the immediate vicinity of bodies of water. Individuals frequently feed and rest eith...The juveniles and adults are commonly found in or around permanent bodies of water, particularly those with emergent or floating vegetation and vegetated shallows. They are commonly seen on roads duri...Data on population structure and local population sizes are scant. The juveniles and adults are capable of dispersing long distances from breeding sites, which hampers the ability to identify populati...Populations appear to be stable in North Carolina and show no evidence of long-term declines. ...S5G5
Lithobates capito
Gopher Frog
Frost et al. (2006) placed species in North American that were formerly in the very large genus Rana into a separate genus, Lithobates, to distinguish them from a large and predominantly......The advertisement call of L. capito has been described as a deep snore or prolonged groan that last about two seconds. Individuals may pause for a second or two before issuing another call. ...The Gopher Frog thrives in fire-maintained sandhills or flatwoods that are dominated by Longleaf Pine or Turkey Oak-pine associations. In Florida they can also be found in other upland habitats such a...Individuals are best found by searching for calling males. ...The number of adults that appear annually at local breeding sites is often very small and many populations appear to be maintained by using clusters of local ponds. At the Savannah River Site, no more...Populations of the Coastal Plain clade that was recognized Richter et al. (2014) have suffered major declines with very few populations remaining in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. As of 2018, O...S2G2G3E
Gastrophryne carolinensis
Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad
Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis) and Western Narrow-mouthed Toad (G. olivacea) were once treated as subspecies of a single species but are now treated as separate ......The males emit a buzzy or bleating "waaaa" call that is one of the most nasally songs of any of our native frogs. The characteristics of the call vary with temperature, but each "waaaa" typically last...The juveniles and adults are generalists that can be found in a wide variety of habitats that range from wet or mesic environs to relatively dry upland forests. Individuals can quickly desiccate if ex...The adults tend to be secretive and are most easily observed when at the breeding sites at night. They can occasionally be found on roads during rainy weather and are sometimes uncovered beneath board...Local populations are centered around the breeding sites, which may contain one or more local ponds. Successful reproduction in this species tends to be episodic, with premature pond drying often resu...Gastrophryne carolinensis is widespread and relatively abundant in North Carolina and there is no evidence of ongoing widespread population declines. ...S5G5
Pseudacris ornata
Ornate Chorus Frog
Degner et al. (2010) analyzed mtDNA variation and recognized three clades that occur across the geographic range of this species. These include a northern clade in North Carolina, a central clade from......The advertisement call is a very sharp metallic 'kik' that is produced in long, equally spaced repetitive sequences: “kik-kik-kik-kik-kik-kik.” Some have described it as resembling the call of a Spri...The juveniles and adults are primarily found in the pine flatwoods, pine barrens and sandhills of the southeastern Coastal Plain. They also can be found in xeric hardwood hammocks, as well as more mes...The adults are secretive and are best observed during the breeding season when they are at the breeding sites. They can occasionally be found crossing roads on rainy nights. ...Local populations are centered around the breeding sites, and most populations appear to consist of several hundred adults or less when averaged across several years. Gerhardt (1973) noted that the ma...Populations in North Carolina appear to have declined significantly in recent decades due to the loss or degradation of seasonal wetlands and forest management practices. This species is in need of pr...S2G4E
Pseudacris ocularis
Little Grass Frog
Pseudacris ocularis has been placed in several genera over the years, including Hyla and Limnaeodus, but more recent molecular studies place it with other Pseudacris specie......The call of P. ocularis is a faint, very high-pitched, repetitive insect-like “ts-r-e-ek” or “s’lick” that Harper (1939b) described as resembling tinkling beads. Blair (1958a) noted that the d...The Little Grass Frog appears to rarely move far from its breeding sites, although it is possible that individuals leave very shallow seasonal ponds that dry and become inhospitable. They can be found...The adults are most easily observed by finding calling males as the breeding sites or searching grassy vegetation around pond and swamp margins during the day or night. ...Very little is known about the population biology of this species. Local populations probably consist of a few dozen to many hundreds of adults. Some of the older accounts (Harper 1939b, Wright 1932)...Populations in North Carolina show no evidence of widespread declines in recent decades and appear to be stable. ...S5G5
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Pseudacris nigrita
Southern Chorus Frog
Pseudacris nigrita hybridizes with P. fouquettei across the Pearl River between Louisiana and Mississippi. The hybrid zone was estimated in 1976 to be from 8.7–14 km wide, but a recent a......The advertisement call is a slow metallic ascending trill with 5-10 notes that are readily distinguishable within each trill. Calling rates are temperature dependent, but trills are typically issued e...The juveniles and adults are primarily found in sandy or loamy upland Coastal Plain habitats. Pinelands and mixed pine-hardwoods are commonly used. Representative habitats include pine flatwoods, xer...The adults are most readily observed during the breeding season when they are calling from breeding sites. They are occasionally seen crossing roads on rainy nights. ...Local populations are organized around local breeding sites and each typically consists of no more than perhaps a few hundred to a thousand or so adults. Semlitsch et al. (1996) monitored populations ...Populations in North Carolina appear to have declined during the last few decades and this species is currently listed as S2 within the state. Most of our records are > 20 years old, and there are ver...S2G5SC
Pseudacris feriarum
Upland Chorus Frog
Pseudacris ferianum is a member of the trilling chorus frog group, which is a complex of species that have had a confusing taxonomic history. Lemmon et al. (2007) conducted a comprehensive mol......The advertisement calls consist of slow trills, sounding like a "crreeek" that has been likened to running one's finger along the tines of a pocket comb. Since each such call is frequency modulated, ...The adults are strongly affiliated with moist deciduous forests. Bottomland forests, swamp forests, or mesic hardwoods are used by the adults outside of the breeding season. Breeding typically occurs ...The adults are most easily observed as they call during the day and night from seasonal wetlands. They are also commonly encountered on rainy nights during the breeding season. ...The Upland Chorus Frog is organized as small local populations that are centered around local breeding sites. We have little data on population organization in this species. The juveniles appear capab...Populations in North Carolina do not show any evidence of recent widespread declines and appear to be stable. ...S5G5
Pseudacris crucifer
Spring Peeper
Herpetologists previously recognized two subspecies that comprised northern (Pseudacris c. crucifer) and southern (P. c. bartramiana) groups, but molecular evidence do not support the re......The advertising call is a familiar sound to most naturalists in eastern North America and consists of a high-pitched whistle or peep, with each peep ascending in pitch and lasting about one-fifth of a...The juveniles and adults live in forested habitats that have breeding sites that are either in the forests or in open areas close to forests. Given their broad geographic range, the adults use terrest...The calling adults are a familiar sound during the spring warm-up and provide an easy way to document local populations. Adults can frequently be found on rainy nights moving to and from the breeding ...Local populations of the Spring Peeper can vary from a few dozen individuals at small breeding sites and a thousand or more at larger sites. We have very little data on dispersal distances or the exte...Pseudacris crucifer is common and populations appear to be stable in most portions of the species range. Dodd (2013) noted that populations appear to be declining in some northeastern states, b...S5G5
Pseudacris brimleyi
Brimley's Chorus Frog
......The advertisement call is a short, repetitive, rasping trill (“kr-r-r-a-k” - “kr-r-r-a-k” - “kr-r-r-a-k”...) and males may call both during the day and at night. The call rate is temperature-dependent...Brimley’s Chorus Frog is mostly found in bottomland hardwood forests where it is commonly associated with swampy habitats in or near rivers and streams. Breeding occurs in shallow temporary or semiper...The adults appear to be secretive during the day and are best observed when calling at the breeding sites. ...We have very little information on the population biology or most other aspects of the natural history of this species. Local populations are thought to be small because many of the breeding sites are...Brimley’s Chorus Frog appears to have declined in some areas of its range. In North Carolina, it status within the entire Coastal Plain needs to be assessed. We have numerous historical records, but r...S4G5W5
Pseudacris collinsorum
Collinses' Mountain Chorus Frog
Until recently, the Mountain Chorus Frog (Pseudacris brachyphona) was treated as a single species that ranged from mountainous regions of eastern Kentucky, southeastern Ohio, and western West V......The advertisement call is a series of short, nasally 'wreaks' that are repeated over and over. The call is distinctive and unlikely to be confused with any other frog that occurs in western North Car...Local populations are often found near the interfaces of forested and more open habitats such as agricultural fields or roadways. Although breeding often occurs on deforested land that is rather dista...Local populations are most readily detected by riding roads on warm, rainy nights to search for migrating adults, or by listening for calling males during the breeding season. Calling mostly occurs at......Populations in North Carolina show no evidence of widespread population declines and appear to be stable. ...S2G2SC
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Hyla versicolor
Gray Treefrog
Duellman et al. (2016) elected to split treefrogs in the genus Hyla into two genera. Hyla (sensu stricto) refers to a group of species that are found in Eurasia, while a new genus Dr......The advertisement call is a very loud slow trill. The trill of this species is lower pitched and occurs at a slower pulse rate (17–35 notes/sec) than that of H. versicolor (34–69 notes per seco...This highly arboreal species is most commonly associated with deciduous hardwood forests where it blends in well with tree limbs in the forest canopy. Its habit preferences overlap strongly with that ...Individuals are most easily observed around the breeding sites at night during rainy weather. They are also commonly seen crossing roads on rainy nights as they move to and from the breeding sites. ...Local breeding populations often consist of only a few hundred adults or less (Dodd 2013). Where clusters of local ponds occur locally substantial gene flow likely occurs due to dispersal of juveniles...Regional populations of this species appear to be stable, with no evidence of decline at a landscape scale (Dodd 2013). The status of populations in North Carolina are largely unknown. Populations her...S2G5SC
Hyla squirella
Squirrel Treefrog
Duellman et al. (2016) elected to split treefrogs in the genus Hyla into two genera. Hyla (sensu stricto) refers to a group of species that are found in Eurasia, while a new genus Dr......The males produce two common vocalizations -- the “rain call” that is made from trees during the day -- and the advertisement call that is made from the breeding sites at night. The advertisement cal...Except during the breeding season, the adults are commonly found in moist, forested habitats that are somewhat open. They have also adapted well to human-altered landscapes where breeding sites remain...The adults are commonly seen around the margins of wetlands during the breeding season, and can be found crossing roads on rainy nights. They are frequently seen around homes, buildings, and landscape...Local populations are centered around the breeding sites and may consist of a dozen or two adults at very small, isolated breeding sites to many hundreds of individuals where clusters of ponds are use...The Squirrel Treefrog is widespread and often locally common in coastal regions of North Carolina, and appears to have expanded its range in the Piedmont. Populations show no evidence on widespread de...S5G5
Hyla gratiosa
Barking Treefrog
Duellman et al. (2016) elected to split treefrogs in the genus Hyla into two genera. Hyla (sensu stricto) refers to a group of species that are found in Eurasia, while a new genus Dr......The males have two distinctive calls. One is the "tree call" that is issued from trees or bushes during the day and often following rains (Neill 1958, Wright 1932). It has been described by Neill (19...Hyla gratiosa is found in a variety of Coastal Plain and inland habitats, including mixed pine-deciduous forests, pine flatwoods, longleaf pine sandhills, xeric hammock, and basin and depressio...Barking Treefrogs are most easily observed after dusk when they are at the breeding sites, particularly following afternoon thunderstorms or on warm, rainy nights. They can also be found crossing road...We know very little about the population ecology of this species. Attempts to determine the sizes of local populations have been hampered by the fact that the adults regularly trespass over drift fenc...Populations in North Carolina appear to be stable in most areas. We have several historical records for counties in the central Coastal Plain near the northern limit of the range in North Carolina, bu...S4G5
Hyla femoralis
Pine Woods Treefrog
Duellman et al. (2016) elected to split treefrogs in the genus Hyla into two genera. Hyla (sensu stricto) refers to a group of species that are found in Eurasia, while a new genus Dr......Dodd (2013) noted that the males have two distinctive calls. One is made from the trees and occurs throughout the warm activity season, while the other is a more typical male advertisement call that i...the Pine Woods Treefrog is strongly associated with southern pine forests of the Coastal Plain, but also can be found in mixed pine-hardwood associations. Although this species typically uses pine for...The adults are best found by seeking calling males at the breeding sites or by riding roads on rainy night. ...Local populations are centered around the breeding sites. Estimates of local population sizes are largely lacking because the adults easily trespass across drift fences that are used to capture many a...Despite widespread historical losses due to the loss or degradation of wetlands and the loss of previously forested areas in the Coastal Plain, H. femoralis show no evidence of marked ongoing d...S5G5
Hyla cinerea
Green Treefrog
Duellman et al. (2016) elected to split treefrogs in the genus Hyla into two genera. Hyla (sensu stricto) refers to a group of species that are found in Eurasia, while a new genus Dr......Breeding males have an advertisement call that resembles a nasal "queenk" "queenk" "queenk" or "quonk" "quonk" "quonk" that is repeated around 60-80 times per minute in the field. If a subordinate mal...The adults are commonly found in or around permanent or semipermanent bodies of water and spend much of the year along the margins of the breeding sites. Outside of the breeding season they frequent n...Green Treefrogs are most commonly heard and observed along the vegetation-choked margins of ponds, marshes, and lakes. They can also be found crossing roads on rainy nights and are commonly seen aroun...Very little is known about the population biology of this species. Local populations can vary from a dozen or so to thousands. Carr (1940), for example, noted that choruses may continue unbroken for 1...Hyla cinerea is a widespread and abundant species, and the range is expanding in several areas (Dodd 2013). This species seem to tolerate disturbed and habitat fragmentation reasonably well and...S5G5
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Hyla chrysoscelis
Cope's Gray Treefrog
Duellman et al. (2016) elected to split treefrogs in the genus Hyla into two genera. Hyla (sensu stricto) refers to a group of species that are found in Eurasia, while a new genus Dr......The advertisement call is a loud fast trill. The trill of this species is higher pitched and occurs at a faster pulse rate (34–69 notes per second) than that of H. versicolor (17–35 notes/sec)....This highly arboreal species is most commonly associated with deciduous hardwood forests where it blends in well with tree limbs in the forest canopy. Populations in the upper Midwest at the western e...Individuals are most easily observed around the breeding sites on nights following afternoon thunderstorms or other rain events. They are also commonly seen on roads on rainy nights, and around homes ...Most local populations appear to consist of no more than a few hundred adults, and often times far fewer. Ritke et al. (1991) marked adult frogs that breed a cluster of ponds in western Tennessee and ...Populations of (H. chrysoscelis) show no evidence of marked declines in North Carolina and appear to tolerate habitat fragmentation and urbanization reasonably well so long as tracts of deciduo...S5G5
Hyla andersonii
Pine Barrens Treefrog
Duellman et al. (2016) elected to split treefrogs in the genus Hyla into two genera. Hyla (sensu stricto) refers to a group of species that are found in Eurasia, while a new genus Dr......The advertisement call of the Pine Barrens Treefrog is very similar to that of the Green Treefrog. The call has been described in various ways (Dodd 2013, Noble and Noble 1923), but is perhaps best re...Hyla andersonii has rather specialized habitat requirements. It is generally associated with pocosins, acid bogs, shrub bogs, and seepage areas that are surrounded by sandy habitats and have cl...Adults are most easily observed during the breeding season when males are calling. ...Local populations are often small (e.g., Sorrow 1982), which reflects the small size of many seepages and bog ponds that are used as breeding sites. Moler (1981) noted that fewer than a dozen males ca...H. andersonii is an IUCN Red List near-threatened species and is considered to be at risk of decline because of habitat loss (IUCN 2016). It is also listed as imperiled in Florida, threatened i...S2G4T
Acris gryllus
Southern Cricket Frog
Acris is a genus of small hylid frogs that is endemic to North America. Two species have traditionally been recognized, each with formally recognized subspecies. Acris gryllus is a south......The songs of both of our species of cricket frogs consist of a series of clicks, often described as "gick" "gick" "gick" and likened to pebbles, marbles, or ball-bearings being struck together. There ...Acris gryllus it typically found in the vicinity of permanent or temporary wetlands such as wet prairies, seepage bogs, sloughs, canals, sawgrass prairies, grassy meadows, Carolina bays, farm p......Local populations often consist of a few hundred to many hundreds of individuals, particularly along small lakes or other large wetlands (Dodd 2013). Wright (1932) considered this species to be the mo...Although long considered common and abundant in the North Carolina, declines have recently been detected in the northern half of the upper Coastal Plain, with populations apparently no longer present ...S5G5
Acris crepitans
Eastern Cricket Frog
Acris is a genus of small hylid frogs that is endemic to North America. Two species have traditionally been recognized, each with formally recognized subspecies. Acris gryllus is a south......To the human ear, the advertisement call consists of a series of clicks in which the interval between clicks decreases with time and often end in a rapid, rattling sequence at the end. The individual ...The adults and juveniles are typically found in the immediate vicinity of semipermanent and permanent wetlands during the warmer months of the year. They generally prefer sunny or lightly shaded habit...Cricket frogs are most easily seen by walking the margins of permanent aquatic habitats such as ponds, freshwater marshes or the shallow sections of small lakes. They often respond to approaching huma...Local populations often consist of hundreds of adults. One population along a 150 m transect in New York was estimated to consists of 628 frogs (range 343-1,681), while a second in the Florida Panhand...Acris crepitans has declined in some areas of its range (Micancin et al. 2012), but populations appear to be relatively stable in North Carolina. We have several older records from the western ...S5G5
Anaxyrus terrestris
Southern Toad
The Southern Toad occasionally hybridizes with several other species of toads, including Fowler's Toad and the American Toad. This typically happens when a male amplexes a female of an opposing specie......The male's advertisement call is a loud and melodic trill that typically lasts for 4-9 seconds. It is then repeated after a short pause. The call resembling that of the American Toad but is shorter in...The juveniles and adults can be found in a wide range of terrestrial habitats so long as suitable breeding sites are nearby. They are commonly found in sandy habitats where they can escape physiologic...Individuals are commonly found on roads at night during rainy weather and can be heard calling from the breeding sites. ...Local populations are often rather large and may exceed 500-1000 adults where larger breeding sites or cluster of breeding ponds are present (Dodd 2013). Factors that regulate local populations are po......S5G5
sciNametaxonomic commentsfield marksvocalizationshabitatobservation methodspopulation ecologystatus commentsS rankG rankstate statusus status
Anaxyrus quercicus
Oak Toad
......The advertising call consists of a series of high-pitched continuous peeps that sounds like a baby chick peeping, with about 2-3 peeps per second. ...Anaxyrus quercicus has a biphasic life cycle and requires both suitable wetlands for breeding and terrestrial habitats for the juveniles and adults. The juveniles and adults typically live in d...The adults are diurnally active and can be found within a hundred meters or so of the breeding ponds. The easiest way to document local populations is to listen for calling males following heavy summe...Factors that regulate local population sizes are poorly resolved. Oak toads often exploit small wetlands and local breeding populations commonly consist of fewer than 100-150 individuals (e.g., Greenb......S2G5SR
Anaxyrus fowleri
Fowler's Toad
Fowler's Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri) and Woodhouse's Toad (A. woodhousii) were previously considered to be subspecies of a single species, but Masta et al. (2002) provided evidence based on ......Males produce a loud explosive advertisement call that sounds like “waaaah” and lasts for about two or three seconds. These are produced in long series, with each interrupted by a pause that typically...The juveniles and adults generally prefer open habitats with friable soils that allow them to dig to avoid physiologically stressful conditions. Sites with sandy or sandy-loam soils and nearby breedin...Fowler's Toad can be found on rainy or warm nights on roadways and is sometimes attracted to building and street lights where individuals feed on insects. Adults can be observed at the breeding ponds ...Local populations can vary in size from a few individuals to several thousand adults (Breden 1988, Ferguson 1960, Ferguson and Landreth 1966, Green 1997). Population size often varies substantially ac...Fowler's Toad is common in the Piedmont of North Carolina (e.g., Gooch et al. 2006), but is uncommon and spottily distributed at lower elevations in the mountains. Populations appear to have declined ...S5G5
Anaxyrus americanus
American Toad
Three subspecies of the American Toad have been recognized by some authorities that reflect phenotypic variation in color pattern, spotting, the extent of ventral pigmentation, and size (Dodd 2013). T......The advertisement call is a high-pitched trill that typically last around 6–12 seconds (range = 1-19 seconds). A given male will often pause for 20-30 seconds or more before issuing another call. Call...The American Toad occurs in a variety of habitats throughout its range, but shows a general preference for open, deciduous forests. Local populations often use grasslands in the upper Midwest, and can...The juveniles and adults are most active at night and are frequently found on roads during or following rains. Individuals sometimes feed around building lights at night, and the calling adults can be...Factors that regulate local populations are poorly known. Sexual competition among males for limited females may play a part, and density-dependent growth and survival during the larval stage is undou...This species appears to be secure within the state. Despite the widespread loss of natural habitats, American Toads have adapted well to using constructed farm ponds, reservoirs, and water features in...S5G5
Scaphiopus holbrookii
Eastern Spadefoot
......The males have a distinctive loud, harsh, nasally call that is difficult to describe. It has been likened to the second syllable in a long drawn-out meow of a Siamese cat (“owww, owww”) or the “waagh...The juveniles and adults are found in a wide assortment of terrestrial habitats, the key being the presence of friable soils that allow individuals to dig with the hind legs and bury themselves. Sites...The adults spend most of their time in underground burrows and are best found by either driving roads on rainy nights or listening for calling males during bouts of heavy rainfall. ...Information on the population biology of this species has been difficult to obtain because of the erratic nature of breeding and difficulty of collecting adults due to their fossorial habits. Local po...The status of the Eastern Spadefoot has proven challenging to assess because the adults are rarely observed on the ground surface and the breeding bouts often last only a day or two (Gibson and Anthon...S5G5
Pseudotriton ruber
Red Salamander
The Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) is a relatively large, stout, reddish salamander with a short tail and short legs. This species can be found throughout a large portion of the eastern US.........Populations are most commonly found in hardwood forests with a perennial source of running water. The larval period last for more than a year and breeding sites such as small headwater streams, seepag...The larvae can be found by dip-netting or searching cover in small headwater streams and seepages. The adults are commonly encountered crossing roads during rainy nights during the fall and spring mon.........S5G5
sciNametaxonomic commentsfield marksvocalizationshabitatobservation methodspopulation ecologystatus commentsS rankG rankstate statusus status
Stereochilus marginatus
Many-lined Salamander
The Many-lined Salamander occurs from Virginia to Florida, but we are unaware of any detailed molecular studies that have examined patterns of geographic variation in this species. .........This is an aquatic or semi-aquatic species that inhabits a variety of permanent or nearly permanent aquatic habitats. These include gum and cypress swamps, woodland ponds, borrow pits, drainage ditche...The larvae and adults are most easily obtained by dipnetting through leaf litter and other bottom debris, or by dipnetting around Sphagnum moss mats and the bases of aquatic plants....Factors that regulate adult population size are unknown. The adults do not appear to be territorial, and it would be difficult for the aquatic adults to mark territories with chemical cues as is often......S3S4G5W5
Plethodon yonahlossee
Yonahlossee Salamander
A crevice-dwelling form of P. yonahlossee that occurs in or near the vicinity of Bat Cave and Chimney Rock in western North Carolina was described by Adler and Dennis (1962) as a separate speci.........P. yonahlossee is typically found in mesic deciduous forests in mountainous terrain at elevations of 436-1737 m (1430-5699'). Martof et al. (1980) notes that this species is often locally abund...Individuals are active on the ground surface at night and can be found by turning stones and large logs on the forest floor. ......The Yonahlossee Salamander can be locally abundant in optimal habitats, but is generally less abundant than other large Plethodon species (Hicks and Pearson 2003, Petranka and Murray 2001). It ...S4G4
Plethodon welleri
Weller's Salamander
Plethodon welleri consists of several geographically isolated groups that are largely confined to higher-elevation peaks in the Blue Ridge Mountains. Populations on Grandfather Mountain have l.........Populations have been found in both mesic hardwood forests and spruce-fir forests. Most populations appear to be isolated mountaintop relicts of an ancestral form that was more widespread. These are s...Individuals can be found beneath surface cover during the day and foraging on the surface on warm, moist nights during the summer months. .........S2G3SC
Pseudotriton montanus
Mud Salamander
Pseudotriton montanus exhibits marked geographic variation in color pattern and body size and four subspecies are currently recognized (see below). Detailed molecular studies of geographic vari.........The Mud Salamander is most commonly found in muddy or mucky environs in or along the margins of swamps, bogs, springs, floodplain forests, and small headwater tributaries (Petranka 1998). Populations ......Mud salamanders are eaten by garter snakes and water snakes (Petranka 1998). The juveniles and adults have a defensive posture that is somewhat similar to that of the Red Salamander (Brandon et al. 19......S5G5
Plethodon teyahalee
Southern Appalachian Salamander
A group of wide-ranging large Plethodon species in the eastern US with a blackish ground color and varying levels of whitish or golden flecking, blotching, and spotting have traditionally been .........The Southern Appalachian Salamander is found in mesic deciduous forests. Optimal habitats are mature stands with a deep leaf litter layer, deep, moist soils, and ample amounts of bark, rotting logs, a...The adult are active on the ground surface at night except during very dry conditions. They can be found beneath surface cover during the day. .........S4G4
sciNametaxonomic commentsfield marksvocalizationshabitatobservation methodspopulation ecologystatus commentsS rankG rankstate statusus status
Plethodon shermani
Red-legged Salamander
.........The Red-legged Salamander is found in mesic hardwood forests that occur at mid- to higher elevations in the southern Appalachians. Local populations reach their highest densities in mature forest sta...The adults forage outside of cover at night and can be found underneath logs and other cover objects during the day. ...Populations of members of the P. jordani complex generally tend to be stable through time and likely reflect density-dependent regulation associated with territoriality (Hairston 1987). The adu...Local populations are sensitive to intensive timber practices but generally recover quickly. This species is locally abundant throughout its range and appear to be in minimal need of protection. ...S3S4G3W2
Plethodon montanus
Northern Gray-cheeked Salamander
The Plethodon jordani complex is a group of closely related forms that mostly are found at higher elevations in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Because they are largely restricted to mid t.........In North Carolina, Plethodon montanus lives is mesic hardwood forests and spruce-fir forests at mid to higher elevations in the Blue Ridge. Mature forests with a thick leaf litter layer and abu...Individuals are best observed the first few hours after dark when they are foraging on the forest floor. They can be found beneath bark, rotting logs, and other surface objects during the day. ...Populations of members of the P. jordani complex in mature forests generally tend to be stable through time and likely reflect density-dependent regulation associated with territoriality (Hairs...The Northern Gray-cheeked Salamander is widespread and locally abundant throughout its range and is in minimal need of protection. ...S5G4
Plethodon serratus
Southern Red-backed Salamander
Populations of a wide-ranging and geographically variable small Plethodon with a reddish dorsal stripe were traditionally thought to comprise a single polytypic species, the Red-backed Salamand.........Populations in North Carolina and other areas within the range of the eastern isolate are typically found in mesic hardwood or mixed hardwood-conifer forests. Camp (1986) reported that mature hardwood...Individuals can be found beneath cover objects during the day during the cooler months of the year, and foraging at night during bouts of relatively warm, wet weather....Mechanisms that regulate local population size are poorly documented, but Mathis et al. (1998) found that resident adults from a Missouri population showed behaviors that are consistent with being ter......S4G5
Plethodon richmondi
Southern Ravine Salamander
Populations of a medium-sized, short legged and slender Plethodon that occurs in the eastern US were traditionally treated as a single species, P. richmondi (sensu lato). Highton (1972,.........The Southern Ravine Salamander lives in ravines and on moist, wooded hillsides and slopes. Mature forests with a well-developed leaf litter layer, moist, friable soils, flat rocks, and large logs prov......Mechanisms that regulate local population sizes are unknown. Thurow (1976) noted that P. richmondi is generally much less aggressive that other eastern Plethodon species, which implies t......S3G5W2
Plethodon metcalfi
Southern Gray-cheeked Salamander
The Plethodon jordani complex is a group of closely related forms that mostly are found at higher elevations in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Because they are largely restricted to mid t.........Plethodon metcalfi can be found in mesic hardwood forests and spruce-fir forests in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina, and in rich woods in the Blue Ridge escarpment and adjoining upper Piedmont...The adults can be easily observed on summer nights when they feed on the forest floor. They can also be collected during the day beneath logs, stones and other cover objects. ...Populations of members of the P. jordani complex generally tend to be stable through time and likely reflect density-dependent regulation associated with territoriality (Hairston 1983a, 1987, H...The Southern Gray-cheeked Salamander has a relatively large range compared to the ranges of many member of the P. jordani complex. It is common in most areas of its range and seems secure at p...S5G4